my suggestions on some documentaries and drama to watch whilst at home, mostly historical

These are some suggestions on things  to watch whilst at home,



Actor  Kenneth Griffith wrote and performed this documentary about the life and political struggles of Thomas Paine, writer of such works as The Rights of Man‘ & Common Sense. It is filmed dn all the places connected with P aine in England, France and USA.


A Thames Television drama-documentary about the Rsing of the  Luddites  in West Yorkshire in  1812.
A heartbreaking song  written by Frank Higgins and based on real testimony  given to a Parliamentary Commission   in 1842 by   Patience, a young woman, who worked down  a coal mine.
Shoulder to Shoulder,  BBC 1974 drama  series about the WSPU fight  for Votes for Women.. Most episodes are  not available on the net anymore,  but this is a snippet about Annie Kenney  from episode 2.  Annie is played by Georgia  Brown who, along with Midge Mackenzie and Verity Lambert,  created the series. It is never been issued by the BBC as a DVD.
Fascinating collection of television  and radio clips about the suffragette movement.
A documentary made  in 1973  by Kenneth Griffith  about the life and death of Irish Republican leader Michael Collins. It was filmed in all the locations where the events took place. It was commissioned by Lew Grade  for ATV but on viewing he refused to show it.
A   documentary made in 1946   by Jill Craigie about  rebuilding  Plymouth  after WW2.
A documentary  made  in 1951 by Jill Craigie in support of equal pay for women and narrated by the actress  Wendy Hiller.
The  documentary  was shot during Winter 1954-5  at the Wood Green Jazz Club by Karel Reisz and Tony Richardson.  Music by Chris Barber band, exuberant dancing by the audience.

Health for the People.

A 1955 BBC documentary about the NHS in Salford.

A Girl Comes To London.

First transmitted in 1956, Robert Reid reports on the growing trend of young girls who leave their industrial cities or rural villages behind in search of a better life in London.


The Liver Birds live on Beat Club,  25/9/65

Largely forgotten all women beat group (from Liverpool,  of course).


Man Alive: Consenting Adults: The Women 

A documentary from 1967 in which lesbians openly discuss their sexuality and lives, something very rare at this time.


The film follows arts reporter Robert Hughes, writer Lewis Nkosi and journalist Olivier Todd to gather an Australian, African and French perspective on whether London really deserved its reputation as being a ‘swinging, switched on’ city. They begin their journey in Carnaby Street, the Mecca of swinging London.

A Man Alive documentary from 1967   on a “happening” at Alexandra Palace attended by 10,000 people on 29th April 1967. It was fundraising event for the underground newspaper International Times.  It features music, dance and much else  besides.

A World In Action documentary by Granada  about the anti-Vietnam War  protest in March 1968. It has very vivid footage of the clashes  between police and protestors outside the US Embassy on Grosvenor Square.

Who Are The Cockneys Now? 

A film in  the One Pair of Eyes series. A ctress Georgia Brown returns to where she grew up in the  Jewish East End  which was changing as new migrants from  East  Pakistan were settling into the same area.

Second Wave Feminism: BBC archive.

A  collection of clips on the emergence of Women’s Liberation. in late 60s/early 70s.

Miss World : Beauty Queens and Bedlam.

A recent documentary about the feminist protest at Miss World in  November 1970.

Witness: November  1970

A vivid  account by Sally Alexander of her role in the Miss World protest. She is now a Professor of History.


A Woman’s Place  (1971)

A documentary made by Sue Crockford  on the first Women’s Liberation conference in 1970 and firest Women’s Liberation narch on 8th March 1971.


Women’s Liberation, 1971

A television piece on  the progress of Women’s  Liberation with a number of interviews, including May Hobbs who led a campaign to unionise  cleaners with the support of a number of Women’s Liberation groups.


BFI Player. Free

The BFI offer an extensive collection of films on a wide variety  of subjects




A drama series  set during the English  Civil Wars. It  takes great liberties with the true history but  includes real events and characters eg   Maxine Peake plays  the Leveller  Elizabeth Lilburne.
Directed by Ken Loach and written by Nell Dunn, this  was a controversial and mould-breaking TV drama, watched by an audience of nearly 10 million on first transmission. A record 400 viewers complained to the BBC, mostly about the programme’s bad language and depiction of sexual promiscuity. At the time, Up the Junction‘s depiction of abortion had a major impact, contributing to the national debate which led to the legalisation of abortion in 1967.

This  dreamy version of the story  was directed by Jonathan Miller. Most of the Wonderland characters are played by actors in standard Victorian dress, with a real cat used to represent the Cheshire Cat. Miller justified his approach as an attempt to return to what he perceived as the essence of the story: “Once you take the animal heads off, you begin to see what it’s all about. A small child, surrounded by hurrying, worried people, thinking ‘Is that what being grown up is like?'” The play featured a number of prominent British actors. The music was  Ravi Shankar.

About as accurate historically as  Shakespeare’s Richard III,  but worth  watching just for Richard Harris’ performance as Cromwell.  Many  other very well known actors in it. eg Timothy Dalton  as Prince Rupert, Alex Guinness as Charles 1.

Take Three Girls

First episode of a  1969 series about three young women  in London.

The first series featured cellist Victoria ), single mother Kate , and art student Avril. For the second series, Kate and Avril were replaced by journalist Jenny ( and American psychology graduate Lulie. The original series of two seasons of 12 episodes each were shown on BBC1 between 1969 and 1971. Only 10 episodes of the original 24 still exist.

A four-episode sequel, Take Three Women, broadcast  in 1982, shows the original three characters later in their lives. Victoria is a widow with a young daughter, and Avril an art gallery owner, while Kate is sharing her life with her son and his teacher.


Play  for Today: The Rank and File. (1971)

Jim Allen’s drama  was inspired by the Pilkington Glass strike in St. Helens and closely follows the events of a strike that had taken place there in 1970. It was directed by Ken Loach


Play for Today:  Leeds United (1974)

A drama written by Colin Welland which is  based very closely on the events  in Leeds  in 1970 when thousands of low paid women  textile workers went on strike to to the dismay of the bosses…and  their union….


Justice  (1971 to 1974)

A drama series in which Margaret Lockwood plays a barrister, then still quite rare.   Dated in places and in some attitudes  but many strong story lines.


Play  for Today: The Evacuees, (1975)

A play by Jack Rosenthal, based on his own experience of being evacuated during the war from London to Lancashire.


Days of Hope. (1975)

The series dealt with the lives of a working-class family from the the First World War in 1916 to the General Strike of 1926. It was written by Jim Allen , produced by  Tony Garnett  and directed by Ken Loach.

Loach has commented that the filmmakers hoped to provoke debate on how to achieve social and political change. The series was met with an outcry from sections of the British press and the army, and from Conservative politicians, who condemned the series for its critical portrayal of the army, government and police.


Bill Brand, (1976).

This drama series stars Jack Shepherd  as a newly elected left-of-centre Labour MP who struggles to reconcile socialist principles with the realpolitik of Westminster. It was written  by  Trevor Griffiths. 


In Lambeth. 

Written by Jack Shepherd, the play shows Thomas Paine (Bob Peck)  meeting William  Blake (Mark Rylance) and Katherine Blake (Lesley Clare  O’Neil)  at the Blakes’ house in Lambeth.




A forgotten women’s solidarity campaign: The Women’s Committee for the Relief of the Miners’ Wives and Children, May 1926 to January 1927

In  May 1926  a million  miners were locked out by the coal-owners for refusing to accept  cuts in pay and a longer working week. The Trades union Congress called a General Strike in their support but, after 10 days, they called  it off with no agreement with the governmnet or coal-owners. The TUC had surrendered.

Miners and their families were now abandoned and facing months on strike with few, if any, resources. Starvation  stared them in the face. On 19th May   the miners’ leader A J Cook asked Marion Phillips, the Labour Party’s  chief women’s officer,  if it was possible to get a committee of Labour party women together to  run a Flag Day for the wives and children of the locked-out miners.

Marion Phillips

Marion and her comrades  took action  immediately, holding their first  meeting  the following  day at which  they  set  up the Women’s  Committee for the Relief of Miners’ Wives and Children which took over the whole work of collecting funds for relief.

The Chair was Ellen Wilkinson (Labour MP for Middlesbrough), the joint secretaries  were Marion and Lilian Dawson,  while Josephine Slesser was the treasurer. They were given free premises by the Parliamentary Labour Party at 11 Tufton Street, London where volunteers helped with clerical work.  Supporters donated typewriters and  even cars. They followed the model of Mary Macarthur during the Bermondsey strikes of 1911 and agreed to raise money for distribution in the form of food and other necessities.

They set up sub-committees: general house-to-house and other collections; Flag days (later the Mother and Babies Committee;  and  Entertainments;

All the principles which guided us throughout were settled at these first to meetings, and nearly every important question that  had to be decided later was an emergency matter that could not have brooked delay. ..New departments grew up as time  went on, new workers were absorbed.  Some who had started  found themselves called by home ties to other tasks, but throughout the period a wonderful comradeship reigned at Tufton Street amongst the sixty or seventy women and the dozen or so of men who gave us their services.     

The Committee  sent out an appeal on 20th May:

Ellen Wilkinson

May we appeal to your readers  for the miners’ wives and children who are now in desperate straits. Long periods of short time and low wages have exhausted their resources and the lock-out finds them facing actual starvation Some of the mining valleys owing to the bad trade of the last few years, are now practically famine areas.

 Collection sheets were printed  and were circulated to every labour Party, Women’s Section, and Women’s Co-operative Guilds as well as trade unions, churches  and other organisations. Within 24 hours money started to come in. The appeal was taken to the USA by Evelyn Preston who was returning there and it was also circulated by the International Women’s Co-operative Committee.

A Welsh miners’ choir was brought to London in the first week  and held concerts to raise funds, the first of many during the seven months. Lansbury’s Weekly organised a meeting on 30th May in the Albert hall to raise money. The first flag day took place on 10th June.

Ellen Wilkinson  made tours of Somerset and Nottiinghamshire and from the news that came in from Women’s  sections the women  realised the immediate needs of mothers and babies.

As the beginning of June we developed our scheme for helping pregnant and nursing mothers, began an urgent appeal for clothes and boots and set  on foot a special enquiry as to school feeding and OP Poor Relief. From then on we became both a collecting and distribution centre and our work developed to meet both needs. We had to maintain a constant pressure on public opinion and seek out new sources of contributions; to assist the Labour organizations and keep a flow of new methods of collecting to enable them to combat the efforts of  coal-owners, the Government and the Tory press, who kept repeating that the needs were not urgent; to organise distribution for mother’s, babies, and the sick women and children; to deal with supplies of clothes and boots; to step in with emergency relief where the Poor Law withdrew its help; and to maintain our own supply of capable workers without drawing unduly upon the nest workers of the local area. 

They raised  £6,500 raised within 5 days, but  said that they needed “hundreds times as much and next week we are all out to get it. And above all, we rely on the Labour women to help us to get it.”

The Daily Herald  regularly featured the appeal,  as well as trade union and Co-operative journals and some national press such as the Manchester Guardian. Some of the regional press – even pro-Tory ones –  carried letters and press releases. Sybil Thorndike sent out an appeal as did a number of bishops including the Bishop of Manchester.

Marion Phillips estimated that a million leaflets were distributed. Miniature miners’ lamps were made and sold at 240 Lamp Days.  9000 Boots collecting cards were issued with a picture of  the actual boots of a miner’s child.  Many Women’s  sections went door to door, collecting funds, food and other essentials.

By the end of May they were raising over £2000 a day. Donations fell after the lock-out ended so they  mounted a special Christmas appeal. The fund closed on 8th  January 1927 by which time  the committee had raised £313,874  and spent  just £10,260 in administration.  The amount raised was the equivalent of over £19 million today.

Mrs Malone described the activity of the Entertainments Committee;

 Starting with the object of stimulating and assisting the efforts of local Relief Committees to raise funds by means of every kind of entertainment  – Concerts, Whist drives, Bazaars or anything that went best in their area – we were soon engaged on a scheme to enlist the help of the general public, outside our own Movement, through the medium of the Music Halls Movement and Cinemas throughout the country. A slide to be thrown on a screen was prepared, appealing in a few very simple, non-controversial words, for help  for the women and children in the coalfields.  Local Labour Parties were circularized, urging them to approach Music Hall and Cinema proprietors  in their area to show the slide and if possible make an appeal  from the stage.

 Over 50 Miners’ choirs gave concerts and  glee parties outside railway stations and factory. A number of miners’ wives from different parts of the country came to speak in London, two of whom worked  with the choirs making an appeal to the public.  Marion Phillips says that the women:

 undoubtedly  made profound impression when they spoke of the lives of people in the coalfields from personal experiences, and appreciably increased the collections wherever they went. A magnificent  Women’s Meeting, when Margaret Bondfield took the chair and Sybil Thorndike was one of the speakers, was held inat Kingsway Hall in June at which five miners’ wives  addressed the audience. This had been organised by the Women’s Section of the National Union of General Workers. Miners’ wives also led the procession of the London Labour women at Hyde Park in July.

  A particular focus of the Committee was supporting mothers and babies. Marion Phillips estimated that 1200 babies a week were being born in the coalfields. The lead on offering support was taken by the Labour Party’s Women’s Advisory Council who in June began administering  the Mothers and Babies scheme. The instructions were as follows:

“All money to be distributed in kind and, as far as possible in food. Blankets, however, may sometimes be as essential as food.”

“Each women section affiliated to you, which is in a colliery are, to form a small Committee of women, bringing in the Women’s Co-operative Guild and any  religious organization they like, and Midwives, etc., they   find suitable, This committee, we hope, would find out about any pregnant women of the mining area who are in need, and see that they get any extra food that is required. When the baby is born we ask this Committee to get definite and certain information as to the birth of the child, and then to look after the mother for the next two weeks, making sure that she has food and warmth.”

It was also proposed to make a special grant to invalids and sick women and children, and local bodies were asked to forward information about these. At first there were only two people, afterwards increased to four, dealing with the applications under the Mothers’ and Babies’ scheme:”

…they sat surrounded by ever–increasing mountains of parcel of clothes from the morning until ten or eleven at night, and more forms were showered upon them by every post….The Committee is very proud to recall that their original circular went out on Saturday, June 12th ; they received the first reply by return  and the first  cheque was  posted on June 15th. Messages and telegrams arrived  from anxious  committees  who expected their grants almost before their forms had arrived in the office, but after a time things settled down  and as general rule cheques were dispatched on the same day  that applications  were received.

 These are extracts from some of the letters they received:

“One woman came here to seek a nightdress and  chemise to be laid up in. She had been in labour all night and had walked up to my house before 8 o’clock in the morning  for the things . It took us all our time  to get her home again. She had absolutely nothing for herself and child.”

“…I am pregnant. The children have no boots or clothes, and to make things worse we have not  a bite of food  in the house adn the children are crying for bread…If you visit us you will find things worse than what this letter says we are, but I have no more writing paper to say more – Please believe me.”

 One miner wrote: “Your representative called yesterday and was an angel sent to help us…I thought my wife  would make herself ill with worry , but since the lady came she is a different woman. My wife had plenty of sympathy, but this  is the only help she has had.”

The  WAC  secretaries were the lynchpin of the support as Marion recorded;

They threw themselves into the struggle…and in many cases the husbands of the secretaries and even the children, took a good  share of the work upon their shoulders. Many of them  found their houses turned into clothes stores and could never suit down to a meal without being called several times to the door, but they bore it all with wonderful patience. ..many of the Secretaries worked twelve hours a day for weeks on end  and wore their strength out.

By the  end of January the Committee had distributed  over £120,000 for expectant and nursing mothers, sick women and children.

Another major initiative  was to provide boots for children. After appeal for funds and the support of the National Union of Boot and Shoe Operatives they purchased over 34,000 pairs. They also set up a boot repairing scheme in September through local committees which  repaired  some 40,000 pairs.

During the London Dock strike of 1912 a scheme of child adoption had been very successful carried out. As the Miners’ Lock-out went on it was decided to introduce a similar scheme for miner’s  children, focusing on the Kent and Somerset mining areas which were small isolated mining communities in rural areas whose Education and Poor Law authorities were  vindictive. They then moved on to other areas. In all over 2,000 children were  found temporary homes.

It was a complex task as they had to find host families and then arrange for the children to be brought by train with escorts   and  escorted back.  Some children had never been on train before, some children arrived in rags or with no spare clothes. Twelve children from Somerset went to a camp  at Storrington during the summer,  another five went to Burston Strike School.   Many went to the seaside or countryside or even abroad with their host families, with  several dozen being invited stay in Norway in December and January where they all learnt to ski and some had learned Norwegian.

Marion Phillips wrote:

The hostesses came from every class of society, from  those who owned motor cars to working people living in small flats, but the children seemed to fit in very readily with all. Often when they came “aunts” were very troubled about their food. They had becomes so accustomed to having little, and probably in addition arrived so tired with the journey, that at first they would  eat nothing but bread and jam, to the bitter disappointment of the hostess who had been  looking forward seeing them enjoy their  first solid meal in weeks. One child who had not only suffered a long period of poverty,  but whose home had just been burned down, was in such a neurotic condition  that we arranged for her to be treated at the Tavistock Clinic  for Nervous Diseases and she made a very fine recovery.  

Most children were away for two months at the very least, and many did not return until the Lock-Out was over.  Those of school age attended schools while they were away. Around 400  stayed on to spend Christmas with their host families. When the children  went back home, their mothers often did not recognise them. A small number never returned home.

Marion says that well as improving the children’s health: It has also given people all over the country  a far  greater knowledge  of the conditions of the mining areas. It has created new bonds between the people within and without the coalfields, and established a friendly relation we know will  result in many avisit between the families in the future. 

The Committee   co-ordinated series of marches and procession by woman in many parts of the country in June and July.

29 May  WAC West Riding  held a joint rally at Hardcastle Crags. Hundreds of women came in charabancs  from all over the district.  As it was showery the meeting had to be held indoors and the room was absolutely packed.  £5 collected for Relief committee.

14 June  Over  2,000 women took part in demonstration at Alexandra  Palace,  Wood Green  with women from across Middlesex and Hertfordshire. They came by train, tram and charabanc, bringing their lunch with them. The speakers were Arthur Henderson, MP, and Miss Minnie Pallister. After the speeches there was tea and  performances  by London Socialist Choir and in the Bijou Theatre by Golders Green ILP Players,

15 June large march of women in Wollaton Hall,   Nottinghamshire with  contingents of women who came  from all over Nottingham and some from Derbyshire. The chief speaker was Dr   Marion Phillips who spoke  on the work of the Relief Committee.  At the close she was presented with a Davy Lamp  whose inscription read “with best wishes from the womenfolk of the Derbyshire and Notts miners.”

15 June   Sheerness  A procession with numerous banners, “very fresh and new,”  started from the station and proceeded through the town to the Hippodrome. At least 2000 took part. Many could get into the Hippodrome.  Speakers included Miss Monica Whateley  and Mrs Green of Abertillery, a miner’s wife.

16 June 300 women  marched in Compton,  Surrey.  In the morning the women were shown around the Watts picture and pottery collection. In the afternoon a meeting was held on the Common were the speakers were Mrs Bell and Lady Cynthia Moseley. The veteran pioneer Edward Carpenter was present and the women sang  “England Arise”.

17 June Over 1000 women  marched in Peterfield Hampshire.  Women  came from all over Hampshire, Southampton, Portsmouth and Bournemouth and even from the Isle of Wight.  They marched with banners flying. Minnie Pallister was the main speakers.

Mary Quaile and Councillor Mary Welsh  from Manchester spoke at a demonstration in Blackburn organised by Blackburn and District WAC.

With the General Strike defeated, the popular press  covered the balls, presentations at court and other  meaningless rituals  of  “The Season”. Labour Woman commented acidly:

The women of the governing classes of to-day have enjoyed the brilliancy of the season.  Let them go. After all, they are of the past, lingering on the scene too long. The women of the future, the women who will help to make our country great, not with “seasons”  but with all-the-year-round happiness, are to be found in other places.  Above all amongst the women in the coalfields.  Labour Woman, 1 August 1926

The North Western District  WAC  reported that  “the Advisory Councils and the Sections have been engaged  in the relief  work in connection  with the coal lock-out. In the districts, other than coalfields, the Sections  have been raising  money, holding pound days, etc  to help the distress , particularly to help Bolton, where the Guardians have behaved so inhumanly. Sections have also arranged adoptions of children for the duration, and have made clothes and collected boots, clogs etc.”  Labour Woman  1 September  1926

Ellen Wilkinson  went to the United States to raise money for the miner’s families, speaking to trade  unions and addressing strikers in Passaic. In August a delegation was invited to tour the Soviet union which included sic  miners’ wives: Mrs Cook, Mrs Johnson (Nortumberland), Mrs Errington (Durham), Mrs Chester (Yorkshire) , Mrs Eddishaw (Nottingham), and Mrs Green (Wales). They spent six weeks touring the country and addressed many meetings.

Finally, as the leaves fell,   the mining communities, many of them starving,  were forced back to work on the mine-owners terms. Labour Woman summed up the struggle, finding hope even in bitter  defeat.

Helping our Fellow Members

For nearly five months the whole strength of the Labour women  of Great Britain has been thrown into the struggle against the coalowners and the Government. Outside the coalfields every effort possible has been made to collect money and clothes and food for the mining areas. Within the coalfields the women have slaved day or night to carry out the work of relief as well as gather whatever assistance they could for the national and local funds.  It has been a truly heroic effort, and it has shown no weakening in spite of every force that can be brought to bear by hardship and injustice to break down their spirit. In this epic of Labour and Capital, this most terrible  example of class war, Labour women have proved themselves the most magnificent fighters. They have not fought by words, but by deedsLabour Woman,  1 October 1926

Marion Phillips  wrote a book about the solidarity campaign Women and the Miners’ Lockout, The story of the Women’s Committee for the Relief of the Miners’ Wives and Children, published in 1927.The foreword  was by  A J Cook who wrote:

I feel at a loss to find words to express my thanks  for this wonderful effort. The collection of money, clothes and boots, and their distribution to the worst areas, and their distribution to the worst areas, the arranging for choirs, bands, concerts, sales, meetings, etc., was a colossal task.

 The Miners’ Lamp has become an historic problem. A new army of trained women workers was born out of the crisis. Their work in our communal kitchens will ever be remembered. When it is known that the sum of over £310,000 was collected, in addition to clothes, under conditions when so many  workers were unemployed or working short time  and all on low wages, the results are almost miraculous.

 It is the women who made the great sacrifice. Therefore, we shall never forget how, led by Dr Marion Phillips,  the Labour women all over the country with energy and  devotion set themselves the task of feeding the miners wives and children. 






“Free our sisters, free ourselves…” The first Women’s Liberation march, 8th March 1971

In my previous posts I have written about  the first Women’s Liberation Conference in February 1970 and the  imaginative protest at the Miss World contest in November 1970.

Another key milestone was  the first Women’s Liberation march which took place on 8th March 1971 in London (in freezing wreather, it should be noted). Organised by the Women’s National Co-ordinating Committee  and Ad Hoc Committee for the London March 6th Demonstration it was the first march on purely women’s  issues since 1926, assembling at Speakers’ Corner and processing to Trafalgar Square.

The idea was to bring women  together in support of the four demands of the Women’s Liberation movement:

  • Free abortion and contraception on demand
  • Equal educational and job opportunites
  • Free 24-hour nurseries
  • Equal pay

The event  was planned with much  imagination  with banners stating “Women  Unite” and “Women’s Liberation”, a  twelve foot Old Woman’s Shoe,  a caged woman (Mis-Stress)   as well as co-ordinated singing, dancing and music and performances in the Trafalgar Square.

Surviving footage captures its fun aspect  and the sometimes bewildered reactions of passers-by.  Around 3,000 attended.

first Women’s Liberation Movement march –  footage from UCL students archive 


Women’s Liberation March, London, UK Archive Footage

Jill Tweedie  went on the march and wrote an account for The Guardian

And when we arrived at Trafalgar Square the demo arranged itself into a symbol so apt as to seem planned. One girl at the mike, four girl photographers, and a solid phalanx of great, grey, brawny men blocking the view of the women. Get out, shrieked the women, get away, get back, and the men, genuinely startled, got back.

Communicators themselves, they communicated the women’s case – men, men, men, grouped at the foot of a soaring phallus with Nelson, a man, at the top. “Look at you all,” said a girl to a male photographer. “If that doesn’t tell you something about equal job opportunities, I don’t know what will.” The photographer looked as superior as a man can in a howling blizzard. “I’d like to see you going into a shower room full of naked men after a Cup Final,” he said. “I’d like to see you going into a changing room full of naked models,” she said. ” Try and stop me.” he said. “Try and stop me,” she said.

In the crowd a tiny “Gay is Good” placard vied gamely with a huge Women’s Lib banner. “Here, it’s our demonstration,” said Women’s Lib testily. “It’s against oppression, isn’t ?” snapped Gay Lib. “I was chucked out of my job last week because I’m gay. We’re more oppressed than what you are, any day.” Women’s Lib raised her eyebrows in ladylike fashion and turned back to the platform.

A middle-aged woman in fur has been lured from a bus stop to join the march. “I’m a graphic designer and what do I read in a trade magazine last week? Some man complaining about how difficult it is to get a job at 45. Huh. I’ve had difficulties getting jobs all my life – the moment they hear your voice on the telephone they don’t want to know.”

Another woman, skin flushed with Panstik, had a hand-scrawled notice pinned to the front of her tweed coat. “I’ve come all the way from Sheffield, I can’t afford the fare but I must do something for the single woman. We don’t get paid nearly as much as men but still we’ve got to find rooms, pay the electricity, feed ourselves. It’s not fair, it’s just not fair.” Behind the pebble lenses, her huge eyes watered. Then the speeches were over, vast congratulatory relief filled the square. The demonstration had happened (miracle) and it had happened well (greater miracle). Girls stood in groups, stamping and chatting:

“There was only one thing. The weather. The trade unions had such a marvellous day and we had to go and get this.”
“Well, love, what did you expect? God is a man.”

An article in the Women’s Liberation workshop newsletter  Shrew  (Vol3, no3)  reflected on what had been achieved – and not achieved

Male passer-by:  What do you want – Stuffing?

Woman in uniform:  “we’re not allowed to think…”

Woman in fur coat: “abortion makes me turn cold. It’s like shutting the stable door after the horse has bolted. “

Middle-aged woman shop assistant: “I think I’m in favour.”

These remarks of bystanders at the demonsaration on Saturday, and the attitude of amused tolerance  in the press coverage of the march, must guide us in assessing exactly what we have achieved. The demonstration raisse certain questions  about our aims and strategy as a movement.  That over 3,000 women assembled in Hyde Park prepared to march despite falling snow and freezing temperatures w  sreason enough for spirits to be high. Not only the numbers present, but that these represented nation-wide support for our cause must be an encouragement. While we need to stand united in the face of press criticism of the demonstration and of the movement as a whole, it is important that our first experience of a national demonstration should provoke self-criticism within the movement.

What were we “demonstrating”: was this a demonstration of  of women’s solidarity  or was it an outing?  Was it a march, or a wander through the West End? In terms of appearances a useful  comparisons  is the New York Women’s Liberation demonsration of September 1970. Several thousand women, arms linked and chanting slogans, surged down Park Avenue, sweeping aisde police attempting to restruct the marchers to two traffic lanes. Police had barricaded sidewalks to keep public and demonstrators apart, and crowds gathered to watch the spectacle – expecting a circus. But, infected by  the determination of the marchers, middle-aged women  left their husbands and girls ducked under the barricades to join the march when challenged to do so. The uncommitted were made to feel that something important concerning them was at stake.

Given the British spirit of moderation in all things, in contrast with the polarisation on equivalent issues in American society, and that the British woman clings more conventionally to the passivity of her traditional  role – did we, in marching, really provoke or inspire women “on the side”  to commit themselves. Many, questioned on their attitude to the march, came out in favour of at least two or three of the four demands in point but had not been made to feel to demonstrate solidarity on the issues. Much more is at stake in the Women’s Liberation movement than equal pay, equal educational opportunities, state nurseries, free abortion and contraception:  the underlying   factor  is the liberation of woman  for independent  self-determination  as a human being.  To quote a hand-out  distributed on the march, “Social reforms do not necessarily mean a change in attitudes”. Female emancipation cannot be achieved simply be legisltaion as female  suffrage has shown.

If all we were  doing on March 6th was demanding social welfare  changes with which many can agree without any fundamental  changes in their  conception of and attitude to “woman”, what was the real confrontation of this demonstration?  

We must avoid putting ourselves in a position in which  we can be fobbed off with superficial concessions and be left with nothing more to say.

All women  must be confronted with the fact that the liberation of women   requires a fundamental revison of the definitions of all human roles in society.  This raises the question  of the role of male support  of the movement: one one hand, their presence  on Saturday  gives weight to the liberated men and women  through the call to women to do something about their own position. On the other hand, the presence of husbands and boyfriends in the midst of “women united”  made us more vulnerable to jokey press comments and public amusement – and possible identification by the public as yet another group of “student revolutionaries”, rather than  as an unprecedented  assembly of women, demonstrating in the cause of all women. 

If we failed to communicate the seriousness of the aims of Women’s Liberation perhaps we should ask ourselves whether our future efforts to communicate should now  involve a choice. One alternative is uncompromising militancy  which  most of neccessity provoke commitment or hostility to the movement, but which brings to light fundamental and radical  issues implied by women’s liberation.  Or do we try  to appeal to the mass of women in this country at the moment  who think they are in favour  – thus achieving a real following but running the risk of making  the four demands as end in themselves.

The moderate method  could be regarded as first step towards greather things ,  or as the removal of specific grievances, but at the possible cost of true liberation.

After the march the Socialist Woman group held a meeting in the evening  in a pub about  the German revolutionary Rosa Luxemburg


Emmie Lawther’s account of the 1936 NUWM women’s march

Emmie Lawther in 1936

In 1930, 1932, 1934 and 1936 the Unemployed Workers’ Movement organised  national marches to London by the unemployed which  included contingents of women.

This is an account written by Emmie  Lawther, Deputy Leader of the march in 1936, which I  have just come across when doing some research at the Working Class Movement Library in Salford.

Emmie started her working life in the Potteries at the age of 13. She became an active trade unionist  and  was a branch secretary by the time she was 18. She also joined the Social  Democratic Federation.

In 1920 she went to Ruskin College for two years and then spent a year in Vienna teaching English. In 1923 she got married to Steve Lawther, whom she had met at Ruskin,  and went to live in Chopwell in the North East where he was a miner. She  quickly became active in the Labour Party’s  Women’s Advisory Council.

Her husband was imprisoned for 3 months during the General Strike.  Emmie was very active in the  miner’s relief fund distributing thousands of pounds to women for their families She also campaigned for a birth control  clinic, despite the disapproval of male Labour politicians.

In 1928 she visited the Soviet Union on a delegation, going to Leningrad, Moscow and the Donbass coalfield and spoke at many  meetings about what she had seen in terms of child welfare, which exceeded what was available in Britain.

In 1929 she attended the first International Anti-Fascist Congress in Berlin.  After the Naxis came  to power she  took in a child refugee  from Germany who later served in the British army.

In the early 1930s she was very active in the NUWM speaking at many meetings. This is her account of the 1936 march.

Thirty-two  women assembled in Coventry on the evening of Tuesday, 27th October, 1936, to take part in the National Unemployed Workers’ movement.

 They came from the distressed areas of Scotland, Cumberland, Tyneside, Wearside, Merseyside and the Midlands. These women knew they were on a serious mission and, though most of them had never left their homes and families before, they came because they felt it was their duty to make this protest to the Government and to bring the poverty and malnutrition rampant in the distressed areas to the notice of the people in towns, villages and hamlets on the route to London.

 Not knowing what they had to face but prepared to meet any hardship such a trek may entail, the women began their march on Wednesday , 28th October, determined to persevere and reach their objective.

 We set off  from Lockhurst and arrived at Coventry about 10.30am.

After a meeting at the Labour Exchange, we set off for Rugby, a distance of 15 miles. In an hour or so the town gave way to countryside and we pass through many pretty scenes and eventually have our mid-day meal by the roadside, sandwiches provided by the Labour and Co-operative women of Coventry. During the break we decide to have a ten minutes rest each hour as the majority of us were already feeling the effects of being “broke in” to this new life. At one of these breaks,  a farmer came and gave us  a sack of apples, large jug of milk and a half-crown to our collection.

 We were to meet with many such kindly incidents on our journey. Long before we reached Rugby we were too tired to appreciate the glamour of the countryside, but in spite of this, we marched into this town as the workers were leaving the factories just after 5pm with banners flying and singing our marching songs and the people responded in no uncertain manner. Here,a good meal  was provided by the co-operative  and served in their hall where we were to sleep. We were all very tired, many had blisters on their feet, others ached in every limb but everybody endeavoured  to make light of their weariness. After a sing-song and much good humoured chaff, we settled down to our second night on bare boards.

 Next morning after breakfast and carrying our mid-day meal we start for Daventry in a heavy drizzle, everybody accepting the wretched weather with good philosophy. After our mid-day meal, we send our advance guard  ahead, on her bike, to make arrangements  for our stay in Daventry. She ultimately returns and informs me  that we are to stay in the Workhouse and the Master is making soup for our arrival. Oh! How we could smell that soup during the last weary miles to Daventry.

Arriving at the Workhouse, everyone slips off her pack and makes a bee-line for the mess room.  We sit down expectant, the soup is served,  and eagerness gives way to dismay. Never have I seen such a concoction  – a thick, lumpy, mess with  bits of fat here and there. We try to eat the disgusting mess but our indefatigable leader, Maud Brown, is the only one that sticks it. She certainly set us an example, but we preferred to make a meal of the farmer’s apples.

 We tramped though town and village, Coventry, Rugby, Daventry, Northampton, Ampthill, St Albans, Finchley and Islington to London. Many times seeking a night’s shelter in Workhouses, oft we were weary and footsore but we never faltered. We carried our message of poverty and distress from the special  areas, caused by the callous indifference of the Government, to the needs of decent people, wherever we went. The people were amazed at the stories of hardship, poverty  and malnutrition our women had to tell. And we aroused the sympathy of all sections of the community. Many people helped to make our  journey to London as light as possible.

In Coventry, Newport Pagnal, Finchley and Islington, the church loaned us their halls to sleep in and we were thankful for their kindness. We shall not forget “mine host” of the “Sow and Pigs” midway between Ampthill and Dunstable, who provided a room with a roaring fire for 32 women  soaked to the skin. We arrrived wet and dismal and left warm and dry with the kindliest feelings for the cheery host who had done so much for us.

 We marched to London to arouse the public consciousness  to the Government’s attitude on unemploymnet. We arrived there on Saturday , 7th November, and carried out eight strenuous  days of campaigning in the Metropolis.

 We addressed Co-operative Guilds, Trade  Union Branches, Public meetings, lobbied  the House of Commons and carried out all kinds of activities. Those  who saw shall never forget the Armistice Celebrations of 1936. Following the official ceremony, 2,000 marchers, who were already lined up in the Horse Guards Parade, marched into Whitehall and paraded past the Cenotaph. They were preceded by five men and five women marchers, each Group bearing a wreath from the men and women marchers that  was placed at the foot of the Cenotaph. The eerie stillness of the morning was broken by a cheer as those two wreaths were placed in position and the huge procession that had marched from every part of the isles now marched past the Cenotaph and  re-forming ranks. It was a most impressive sight.

 Our march was essentially a protest against the National Government. When the first contingents had taken the road five weeks previously, the Cabinet issued a statement, deprecating the march and informing us that they would not meet the marchers. After our arrival in London, Mr Baldwin repeated this declaration in the House of Commons but we broke through this conspiracy and forced the Minister of Labour to meet a deputation from the Marchers  before we had  concluded a week’s campaign in London. Not only did we break through  the ban of the National Government but we broke through all the bans of officialdom in our movement and   we achieved a measure of unity undreamed of at Edinburgh a few months. I  myself spoke on the same platform at Sir Stafford Cripps, G R Strauss, MP,  Wal Hannington and Arthur Horner.

The demonstration in Hyde Park  on Sunday, 8th November, was one of the greatest ever seen on that historic ground; it brought on to the same platform  Clem Attlee, Leader of the Parliamentary party, Wal Hamnnington, Leader of the Unemployed, and a host of Members of Parliament and Trade Union Leaders and left wing leaders who would not have associated on the same platform a short time ago. We can claim the march achieved a measure of unity never before accomplished and that basis that we laid will bear fruit in the future.

Emmie remained active for next thirty years. She died in 1965. This account of the march and her life is taken from a pamphlet  Emmie Lawther: a tribute.

” We’re not ugly, we’re not beautiful—we’re angry!”: The protest by feminists at the Miss World contest, 20th November 1970

In a previous post I discussed the protest at the Miss World Contest in 1969.

Twelve months later on 20th November 1970  there was another protest but this time a number of women  got into the Hall and disrupted the contest for a time which was being broadcast live.

Jane Grant, who had been at the first Women’s  Liberation  conference at Ruskin college in 1970, helped to organise the protest. She fondly remembers the detailed planning, and stresses that the focus was on the show’s host, Bob Hope, a Hollywood comedian with a reputation for reactionary and racist gags. “It wasn’t about messing things up for the women in the competition or causing harm in any way.”

Sally Alexander concurs.  “We had no quarrel with the competitors. Our argument was, why do you have to be  beautiful and looked at like this before you get noticed as a woman.”

Sally and her co-conspirators  dressed up. “We wanted to fit into the audience so we went in with our handbags and looking good. Inside our handbags we had put flour scrunched up into little pieces of paper. When we got in we realised that there were groups of women  dotted all around the hall.  You felt,  “Oh my God, I’ve got to do this.” You felt terrified.”

Sarah Wilson was chosen to start the protest. “When Bob Hope was going on and on with terrible, grotesque stuff, I got up and swung my football rattle. It seemed ages before anybody responded – people were lighting their cigarettes to ignite the smoke bombs – but then I saw stuff beginning to cascade down.”

From her position in the balcony, Jenny Fortune saw the signal. She had come with a busload of women from Essex University. “We threw leaflets, bags of flour and smoke bombs – the Albert Hall was covered with smoke and leaflets. It was pandemonium.”

Jo Robinson was sitting on her own surrounded by families and beginning to wonder if the protest was such a good idea. But she was appalled by by the misogyny and racism of Bob Hope’s  act and became desperate  for the protest to begin:

“Suddenly I heard a football rattle go off  – very hesitatantly  –  and it all went very quiet. And then  suddently another football rattle started and just after that there were these almightly howls and screams all round the Albert Hall. And I looked up and I saw in the floodlights all this flour, smoke bombs and leaflets, coming down onto the floor. 

Jo jumped and  hurled tomatoes at the press, shouting “We’re not ugly, we’re not beautiful—we’re angry!”

According to some accounts they also threw plastic mice. One woman who had been watching Miss World on TV at home nearby actually raced out of her house and joined in.

Guardian reporter Nicholas de Jongh,  who was covering the event, wrote: “Sixty seconds noisy, smelly pandemonium reigned. I was hit by  a bag of flour, tied in a paper packet. My shirt, suit and hands were splattered with blue paint. Bob Hope retreated, unable to compete with this newer, and frankly more interesting, entertainment.”

Sally again:“We leapt up. I had to climb over people who were horrified at what we were doing.  I was certainly determined to get onto that stage and disrupt. When I first leapt up I could see Bob Hope looked absolutely horrified and ran back stage. He took a long time to be persuaded to come  back on.” She  was seized by four or five policemen  and carried out by her arms and legs. “As we were being dragged out some of the Miss World contestants, beautiful young women  in all  their baubles,  were saying “Let them go” to the policemen!”

The contest was won by Miss Grenada, Jennifer  Hosten, aged 22. She was an airhostess and the  daughter of a barrister. She told The Guardian, “I do not think women should ever achieve equal rights. I do not want to. I still like a gentleman to hold my chair back for me.”  (Apartheid South Africa sent two contestants:  Jillian Jessup,  Miss South Africa,  who was white,  and Pearl Jansen, Miss  Africa South,  who was mixed race  and came second.)

In its report The Guardian said that there were 30 or 40 women   involved who were sitting in three  guinea and four guinea seats. The paper quoted Jan Williams, speaking on behalf of the Women’s Liberation Workshop,  “The protest had been planned for a number of weeks. As far as we are concerned it was a great success. We never intended to attack the girls.We just wanted to show we were sorry for them.” Bob Hope described it as “one of the worst theatrical experiences of my life. I was flabbergasted.  I have never  faced a bunch of mad women before.”

In her television programmes  review column in The Guardian  Nancy Banks Smith wrote:

…this year the contest was worth watching for the uproar from the floor. At the time of writing I don’t know who tried to break up the contest but I’ll  tell you this. I”ll join. Include me  in.  Consider me a member. If it was Women’s Liberation forget the form. I already belong. If Bob Hope’s jokes had been getting over (in the confusion we saw one of his cue cards being held at arm’s length – which is where I would have held it) there would’nt have been a pause to demonstrate in.

One of his jokes about World Wildlife and women’s  fur coats  had  just been stillborn when a football rattle was heard in the polite silence. At first Hope seemed to think that this was some kind of British appreciation…However, a shower of leaflets, some screwed up paper landing  on the stage   and thundery shouts induced him to say “Who are these pests? ” And he thereupon kindly left the stage.

Five women appeared in the magistrates court on 22nd  December  on a variety of charges including assaulting the police, threatening behaviour and insulting behaviour.  Shrew appealed for support : this is the first Women’s  Lib trial since the suffragettes . ..please come to Bow Street…and bring  your friends, your banners, your lunch and your support.

They were Jo Robinson (28) , Catherine McLean (20),  Mair Twissell (27), Sally Alexander (27)  and Jenny Fortune (21)  At  the hearing  Sergeant Geoffey Bowers alleged  that Sally had been one of the two women who ran towards the stage. “I  grabbed her as she climbed a barrier leading towards the stage. She struggled violently and screamed. In her right hand she had a lighted cigarette which she stubbed out on the back of my hand.” At the police station they searched her bag and found a bag of flour, four plastic mice and an over-ripe tomato. Inspector Eric Warren   claimed  that Jenny was trying to light smoke-bomb. Outside the court supporters  paraded with banners which said “Beauty Contests Enslave” and “Support Women  on Trial for Miss World.”

Jo  was heavily pregnant and repeatedly used her right to ask for a loo break, which eventually annoyed the magistrate. When she threatened to relieve herself in the court, a fracas ensued. The women on trial were rearrested and spent the night in Holloway prison, and ended up being fined for various offences. Nevertheless, Fortune describes the experience as an “epiphany . . . It was the most fantastic feeling: facing your fears – and my fears were my family’s fears: if I stopped being a nice middle-class girl, I’d get into bad trouble.”

The Women’s  Liiberation  Worksop Shrew carried a lengthy  jointly-authored report of what had happened. This began:

The Miss World competition is not an erotic exhibition; it is a public elebaration of the traditional female road to success. The Albert Hall on th evening of  November 20th was miles away from the underground world of pornography. The atmosphere was empahtically respectable, enlived by a contrived attempt at ‘glamour’. The conventionality of the girls’ lives and the ordinariness  of their aspirations – Miss Grenada (Miss World) “Now I’m looking for the ideal man to marry.” – was the keynote of all the pre-and post -competition publicity. Their condition is the condition of all women, born to de defined by their physical attributes, born to give birth, or if born pretty, born lucky; a condition which makes it possible and acceptable, within the borgeois ethic, for girls to parade, silent and smiling, to be judged on the merist of their figures and faces.

After detailing the individual experiences of some of the women involved, it concluded:

How was it, with so many  odds against us, that the demonstration was successful? The spectacle is vulnerable.  However intricately  planned it is, a handful of people can disrupt it and cause chaos in a seeming impenetrable organisation. The spectacle isn’t prepared for anything other than passive spectators. Bob Hope made more connections than we had ever expected to put across; his continual emphasis on Vietnam revelealed the arrogance of imperialism  behind the supposedly re-assuring family of nations facade.

At the second hearing  on 12th February 1971 three  of the women decided to conduct their own defence:   Catherine,   Jenny and Jo  while  Nina Stanger represented Sally. The Guardian  report said:

On the face of it the trial should have been clearcut and simple. But the magistrate  was clearly ill at ease with the tactics used by the three women  who presented  their own defence. At no stage was there any meeting of minds. On one side was the magistrate, determined to see justice done: the charges were clear,  he waited for the evidence. His opponents were four women determined to assert that the trial was not about criminal offences but about the position of women in society. ..they refused to be intimidated by the awe in which courts are held in Britain. All,  particularly Miss Fortune, were very articulate, only relying on occasions on their legal advisers for assistance. 

During the hearing the women tried to establish that their questions on the position of women in society were relevant. They tried to ascertain what each Crown Witness felt about Women’s Liberation and what the attitude of each  was to women in general.

The women’s  attempts  to turn the court into a political  theatre to promote their views very much echo what they the suffragettes  did in the many trials of women  arrested on numerous protests in the earry C20th.

Catherine and Jo were fined £10 for insulting behaviour  and £10 for throwing a stink bomb. Sally and Jenny were fined £10 for threatening  behaviour. The charge against Sally for assaulting a policeman was dismissed. Charges against all four for possessing offensive weapons ie stinkbombs were dismissed.

Looking back  in an interview 2014 Sally reflected: “We were exhilarated by the demonstration  and exhilarated by its success and astonished by how successful it had been. I do see Miss World as one of the spectacular consciousness raising episodes. It did leave its mark.”

Some of the women continued campaigning for different causes. Jenny Fortune became active in the Claimants Union and in housing politics in east London – campaigning for women’s right to housing in their own names. Sue Finch became a peace campaigner, and in 2010  was among demonstrators who closed down the Aldermaston weapons base. Sally Alexander became an historian and eventually  a Professor. Her work includes Becoming a Woman: And Other Essays in 19th and 20th Century Feminist History. Jo Robinson was involved in a radical  commune movement   called Wild.

Here are some clips

Interview with Sally Alexander

Interview with Jo Robinson

Bob Hope and the moment  the protest began.

Michael Aspel  introduces the judges

Jennifer Hosten,  Miss Grenada crowned as Miss World


“…to stand firmly with kindness, firmly with consideration.” Pat Sturdy and the Women’s Industrial Union, Burnley, 1971-1972

The Women’s  Industrial  Union was  a breakaway union from the General and Municipal Workers’ Union,   formed by Pat Sturdy at the Lucas factory in  Burnley in May 1971 because she had  become very disillusioned with the attitude of the male-dominated union  who ignored issues raised  by women.

Pat attended the Socialist  Woman conference in London in January 1972 as an observer,  contributing to a panel on women and trade unions.

In her Book Women, Class and Education (2002), Jane Thompson  quotes Pat from a letter as wanting the WIU:

…to be more like a Union-cum-Club… (to) look after members’ rights  and help with their problems out of work…to stand together…to stand firmly with kindness, firmly with consideration. Only this way can we hope to show the men folk the error of their ways and stay uncorrupted ourselves. (p.35)

Although it attracted 200 members, the WIU opted after a year to go into the Amalgamated Union of Engineering Workers.

This is a report  from Socialist Woman, summer 1972 .


The women workers’ occupation of the Sexton’s shoe factory in Fakenham, Norfolk, spring 1972

In early 1970s there were a number of occupations by workers of their work places in response to plans to close them down, the most well known being the Upper Clyde Shipbuilding occupation in 1971  and Fisher-Bendix  in 1972. Many  of  the other occupations, including those by women workers – Sexton’s shoe factory in Fakenham  and Briant Colour Printing in Peckham – have been forgotten

I came across the Fakenham occupation mnetioned  in Socialist Woman (summer 1972)   in the course of writing a post about this  Marxist women’s journal  which was published between 1968 and 1978. I have  scanned in the report below.

Fakenham  was a small market town with a population of less than 5,000 but had a number of factories attracted  by cheap female labour . Sexton’s shoes  was set up in the ninteenth century and opened a factory in Fakenham in 1964 which  employed 45 women. Set in a mainly agricultural area, there was no history of industrial militancy.

Sexton’s was sold to an American company in February 1972  who sacked most of the workforce. The unions organised a  mass meeting and threatened an occupation,  leading to most redundancies being withdrawn, but  not those of the women workers in Fakenham. Led by their supervisor Nancy McGrath  the women occupied the factory on 17th March The occuption was run democraticlaly and the women went out and about publicisng their cause and raising money through selling the bags, skirts and  waistcoats they made using scaps of material. Orders came in from unions and feminist groups.

They set up a workers’ co-operative, which  was launched on 17th July 1972 in  a new factory using a loan. Despite high hopes it  struggled   to make ends meet. and folded after five years.

The occupation  was reported by Mary Holland in The Observer, 7th May 1972. It has also  been featured in several books.  The occupation of the Sexton, Son & Everard Shoe factory at Fakenham Norfolk which eventually lead to the formation of a Workers Cooperative known as Fakenham Enterprises by Jill Hardman (1975). Women  in Control : Dilemmas of a workers c-ooperative by Judy Wajcman (1983) (who worked at the factory for a  few months)  and Women, Workplace  Protest and Political Identity in England 1968-1985 by Jonathon Moss (2019),

It was also  the subject of a documentary made by the London Women’s Film Group.