” We believe that a total perspective of women’s  liberation is impossible without a total revolutionary perspective.” Socialist Woman journal, 1968 to 1978

Socialist  Woman started  life in 1968  as  a journal produced by a group  of women  who were active  in the International Marxist Group. The IMG was a  small Marxist and Trotsykist  group, formed in the 1960s as the British Section of the Fourth International. (You can read more about its history here). Its membership never amounted to more than  a thousand at most, many of them  joining during the student protest movement and anti-Vietnam War protests of the late 1960s.

However IMG members were often  hyper-active,  involved  in numerous campaigns  – students, Ireland, women, anti-fascism, trade union, strikes,  abortion etc – and somehow found time to  produce a number  of  journals and pamphlets.

In those  early  years the editorial board comprised : Anne Black, Val Charlton,  Marie-Claire, Antonia Gorton and Jo O’Brien.  The journal included  articles on:

  • women’s  activity in the trade unions eg the Nightcleaner’s campaign
  • strikes by women workers eg a 10 week strike in 1969 at Electronics laboratories, Ramsgate; a strike by telephonists in London in 1971
  • sexuality
  • the developing Women’s  Liberation movement and the role of Marxist women within this
  • the  war in the North of Ireland
  • the fight against the Tory government’s Industrial Relatons Bill
  • women’s  history eg Helen Keller

In March 1971 the editorial welcomed the national Women’s Liberation march planned for 6th March  in London and noted the growth of Socialist  Woman groups  over the past 6 months in Oxford, Manchester, Lancaster, Glasgow and London who were now represented  on the pro-tem editorial board. It continued:

We believe that a total perspective of women’s  liberation is impossible without a total revolutionary perspective. At the same time we recognise that many women will want to come into  Socialist  Woman groups without yet having this perspective. We intend that the groups will remain  as open as they have always been,  with the greatest possible democracy  prevailing, so that policy is arrived at with the participation of all. Socialist Woman groups have a vital part to play in the Women’s Liberation  movement, by bringing a political perspective into it. Women’s Liberation is a political question. Our oppression  is rooted in the economic, social and political system., and until the system is overthrown, our liberation is impossible.

With the advent of Women’s Liberation left groups such the IMG and International Socialists (which were male-dominated)  struggled to reconcile their Leninist structures  in which  decisions were  taken  by a central  committee with  the autonomous tendency of Women’s   Liberation. There were also tensions about how much  independence  the women’s  groups should enjoy to set their own policies, and the behaviour of  men. As we shall see these tensions grew within IMG culminating in a major debate at the 1978  conference.

Socialist Woman Groups

These groups  were listed in  Socialist Woman in 1971 and 1972 but not after that. Did  they all founder?

Birmingham – contact: Tessa van Gelderen (1971) Sandra Cooper (1972)

Bolton  – contact:  Joyce Leman (1972)

Bristol  – contact: Viv Prior (1972)

Canterbury – contact : Liz Lawrence (1972)

Cardiff –  contact: Sue Lakes (1972)

Chorley – contact: Cath Young (1972)

Colchester – contact: Celia Pugh (1972)

Coventry – contact: Maureen Draper (1972)

Edinburgh – contact:  Jackie Freeman (1972)

Glasgow – contact : Shelly Charlesworth (1972)

Keele  – contact: Nicola Charles (1972)

Kingston – contact: Jane Cullen (1972)

Lancaster –  contact : Margaret Coulson (1972)

Leicester – contact: Jean Holman (1971)

London –  contact: Leonora Lloyd (1971).

London (North and Central) – contact: Pat Masters (1972)

London (South) – contact: Betty Hunter

London (West) – contact: Leonora Lloyd (1972)

Manchester – contact: Judy Evans (1971). (This group was previously the Manchester Women’s Liberation Group);  Sheila Cohen (1972)

Norwich –  contact :Rhona Ball (1972)

Nottingham – contact: Toni Gorton (1971),

Oxford – contact:: Judith White (1971), Hilary Wainwright (1972)

Preston- contact: Kath Ryde (1972)

Sheffield – contact: Catherine Cirket (1972)

Stafford – contact:  Hilary Wykes (1972)

Watford – contact: Leslie Richardson (1972)

Welwyn Garden City – contact: Val Paterson (1972)

York – contact: Julie Baldasara (1972)

 

Socialist Woman Bulletin, December 1971

A  typed Socialist Woman Bulletin was produced in December 1971 to “provide c-oordination between groups, to let them know what was going on in the centre, to pass on queries and to reflect the problems and triumps of the groups.” The groups were urged to send in regular reports of their meetings and activities,  100 copies of leaflets produced, details of all industrial work “what union and firm  is concerned, names of militants who could be contacted by other groups as speakers, etc..”  Groups were urged  to sell the bulletin for 1d.

A speaking tour was being planned with Leonora Lloyd and possibly  May Hobbs. The bulletin urged women  active in trdae  unions to try and get nominated as deleagtes to the TUC women’s conference.

Reports:

Bolton had held a meeting with Margaret Coulson from Lancaster.The group “is going towards adopting an industrial orientation for its work. They want information on women in textiles.”

Sheffield (described as “a mixture of working, unemployed and students”)  has been “doing research into working conditions in the area  and made contact  with university cleaners”. They were planning another meeting with May Hobbs in conjunction with the Trades Council

Birmingham wanted to do a survey and was  planning a joint meeting with the Socialist Society.

The Midland Regional Conference had been attended by 10 groups, most of  which  reported a decline in membership and activity.  Three schools were being planned: 22nd January 1972 on nurseries (organised by Leamington Spa WLG ); 5th February Industrial (organised by Nottingham SWG) and 29th February on abortion and contraception ( organised by Birmingham and Nottingham WLG).

The Bulletin included a copy of strike leaflet produced by Bristol SWG  addressed to the wives of strikers at Rolls Royce and  a copy of  the York Socialist Woman  manifesto

The existence of the women’s   movement is a result of the oppression of women, the root cause of which is the whole structure of society – not merely male chauvinism which  is only a reflection of that society.  

The oppression of women is most  clear  in the class oppression of women, where the contradictions are most obvious. Therefore the Socialist Woman Group aims to help organise working and working-class woman in order to focus on the central place where women  are oppressed – doubly oppressed – not just as  women  but as workers: not just as women but as workers.

We don’t want  equality with oppressed men: we demand liberation for everyone and we recognise that this aim can only be achieved through a Socialist Revolution. Women and men can never be free under the present  social structure; capitalism cannot, by its very nature,  allow for true equality.  However, there is a need for women to organise as women – and the Socialist Woman Group is the first step in that direction.

The Socialist Woman Group demands equal pay for equal value, equal job and educational opportunities, and free 24 hour child-care centres under community control. We organise around the bi-monthly publication Socialist Woman and all our members sell this  magazine. 

Despite the proclaimed intention of producing a regular  SW Bulletin,  this appears to have been  the only issue produced.

 

Socialist Woman conference, 29th – 30th January 1972

This took place at Imperial College, London and, according to the report by Linda Fryd  in Socialist Woman, was attended by  about 100 women.   In its report the journal said that the conference was needed  because, with the growth of Socailist  Woman groups, they needed to  resolve the problem of what relationship  to establish with existing women’s groups and also their relationship with the IMG.

More urgent was the need to establish a common political basis from which to coordinate the activities of the groups, pass on the lessons drawn from local struggles and further build up the groups. Most groups had already drawn up a local manifesto for the purpose of recruiting, expressing the broad aims and political  position of “Socialist Woman”  on the question of women’s liberation, differentiating themselves from purely feminist and from reformist groupings, and locating themselves within the mainstream of the revolutionary movement

On the Saturday the conference began with a paper  by Linda Smith, “The Women’s  Liberation Movement in Britain, the WNCC,  and the regional structure, (including a historical analysis of women’s organisations.) ”

This  was followed by a paper by Judith White, “The relationship between women’s liberation and  revolutionary  socialism.”

In the afternoon  a member of the Irish Solidarity Campaign spoke on women  in the Irish national liberation struggle and the need for solidarity with the struggle of the IRA for a united Ireland and a Workers Republic.

A women  from the Danish section of the Fourth International reported on the setting up of a socialist women’s group in Denmark in response to “the inward-looking, feminist, anarchistic movement that had grown up during the previous six months.”

Margaret Coulson from Lancaster Socialist Woman Group opened the next full session on the need for Socialist Woman groups  to initiate a campaign  in workplaces for equal pay and against low pay. She stressed that the Equal Pay Act did not envisage or legislate for the the raising of the position of most  low paid working class women. “What is needed to make the fight for women’s liberation dynamic and fruitful is a campaign  exposing the real nature of the Act to be an attempt by the ruling class to defuse the women’s liberation struggle and isoloate it from the class struggle while fostering  reformist illusions among working-class women. This means a campaign demanding equal work with men, not just equal pay…and this must be a two-way process of levelling up  and in no case down.

There was a contribution from Pat Sturdy who attended as an observer amd  who raised the question of how women militants  could overcome  the frustrations encountered in “the existing male-dominated and extremely bureaucratused undemocratic unions.”   (Pat  was a shop steward at an engineeting  works  in Burnley  who had founded the Women’s Industrial  Union after she got fed up with way that the male-dominated unions ignored womne’s issues eg workpalce bullying . The aim  was sto be “more like a Union club to look after members’ rights at work and   and help with their problems out of work…to stand together…to stand firmly with kindness, firmly with consideration. Only this way can we hope to show the men folk the error of their ways and stay uncorrupted ourselves.” The WIU  attracted  200 members,  but  met with considerable hostility from the official  trade union movement.  Eventually Pat returned  to the official  trade union movement.      Jane Thompson, Women,  Class and Education, p.35;  George Stevenson, The Women’s  Liberation Movement and the Politics of Class in Britain, p. 88)

Dr Altheia Jones from the British Black Panthers spoke about the oppression of black women in the USA, West Indies and Britain and  the way in which the West Indian colonial system had entrapped women within the family.  She stressed “the  continued neccessity for oppressed people to organise themelves   independently and separately from  the existing working class and revolutionary organisations in view of the prevalence of racist and sexist attitudes within these.”

On the Sunday morning Leonora Lloyd  spoke about the equal pay/equal work campaign followed by  a discussion with a panel of trade union militants on the problem and difficulties   ecnountered in organising. The panel included May Hobbs from the Nightcleaners campaign   who stressed the need  for women’s groups  to keep the pressure up, especially where women are organised. Also on the panel  were Vicky Robinson (UPW) and Jo Gilbert (Jewellers’ Union)

The final  session was spent mainly in discussion on the draft mainfesto which was presented  by Felicity Trodd of the North London Socialist  Woman  Group. It was agreed   to accept the general  line in the draft and take the report  back to the SW groups for further discussion.

The Conference  also elected the Editorial Boad of Socialist  Woman : Margaret Coulson,  Leonora Lloyd, Roberta Manners, Wanda Mariuszko, Pat Masters, Vicky Robinson, Linda Smith and Felicity Trodd.

 

Manifesto of the Socialist Woman Groups, printed in Socialist Woman, summer 1972

We think that women cannot be liberated in a society such as this where class divisions distort all relationships between people.  So by the liberation of women we do not mean the equality of women with men in the present  set up , as this could only mean “an equal chance to be unequal” (for some to be wealthy and some to be poor, for some to be managing directors and some to be workers).

The only way to change this society for a better one is through a working class revolution, and this must involve women and men.  A socialist  revolution would end the exploitation of men and women workers for the profit of the employing class, and would create the possibility of ending all oppression such as that experienced by women. The ending of this present system of production for profit could release the neccessary resources to provide the full range of educational, social and medical services which will be needed to support  the liberation of women. But for this possibility to be realised women must play a full part in the development of a socialist society.

In present  society all women are to some extent oppressed but working class women are one of the most oppressed sections of society, oppressed because of their class  and because of their sex. At the same time, because of their position, of dependence and isolation in the family, women are often the upholders of traditional values and behave in a reactionary way. To break out of this situation women  need to organise themselves, to discuss and clarify their understanding of the subordination of women, and to begin to act to change things.

The need for  this is made greater  both by the lack of understanding among male trade unionists who do not see that the subordination of women (which seems to give them some immediate advantages) is used to make divisions within the working class, setting male workers against female workers., housewives against trade unionists. And  also within most socialist groups the question of women’s liberation has been neglected, ignored or dismissed as irrelevant.

We see Socialist Woman groups  as a way of organising against the oppression of women at the present time. We give priority to the struggles of working class women, both as the most oppressed,  and as those in potentially the strongest position to organise against the central economic basis of women’s oppression in thissociety.

To begin to challenge the present  situation we raise the following demands:

Equal Economic Rights – End Discrimination in Jobs, Social Security and the Law

  • Equal pay and equal work: an end to low pay
  • Work or full maintenance, regardless of marital status
  • No discrimination against women in social services and benefits -no strings

Equal Cultural, Social and Educational Rights

  • Social provision for children – free 24-hour childcare facilities controlled by the community
  • Equal education and training

End to Sexual Repression and Exploitation

  • The right to choose whether or not  to have children
  • Free contraception and abortion on demand
  • The right to a standard of living to make this a real choice : adequate housing, income (wage or social security), child care facilities (schools, playgrounds)
  • An end to the presentation of women as passive sexual objects
  • Recognition of the rights of gay people

The Development of Class Consciousness and Solidarity- An End To All Divisions In The Working Class

  • Working class support for women’s rights
  • Full unionisation of women and their full participation in unions; democratisation of the unions
  • An end to discrimination on grounds of sex, race or religion
  • No redundancies or unemployment : we must be clear this includes women
  • Support for women involved in working class struggles – for better pay and conditions, greater control over conditions including job evaluation; and to widen these; women on strike, wives of strikers, community struggles
  • The development of class consciousness and a revolutionary socialist perspective in the women’s movement

Membership of a Socialist Woman Group involves:

1. General agreement with the political basis of the Socialist Woman  Group as expressed in the Manifesto.

2. Acceptance of responsibility for sharing in the work of the Group, both discussions and activities.

3. Regular attendance at meetings (difficulties should be discussed with the Group.

4. Financial  contribution to maintain the Group’s activities (amount to be decided by the Group).

5. Agreement to support, sell and if possible write for, the paper Socialist Woman.

 

Key issues covered  in Socialist Woman 1972 -1978

Abortion: the national campaign  to defeat James White’s Abortion Amendment Bill  in 1975

Housing: the Housing Finance Bill; Fair Rents campaign;

Ireland: the aftermath of Bloody Sunday; an interview with Maire Drumm, joint  President of Sinn Fein; Anti-Internment League conference;  Dolours and Marion Price hunger strike; interview with Bernadette McAliskey (Devlin); Irish Women United; Women for Peace; Women and Ireland group

Lesbian/Gay Liberation: report on Gay Marxist conference in 1973; lesbians and the women’s movement; Lesbian Line

Sexuality:  the May/June 1973 was a special issue on sexuality, produced  by an informal collective of women , some in the IMG, some not. It was agreed to publish contributions received without any editorial restriction.

Strikes involving women: :  The Fisher Bendix occupation in Liverpool in 1972;  the occupation by  sacked women workers of the Fakenham shoe factory in Norwich in 1972;  strikes at government  buildings by cleaners in 1972.  Imperial typewriters;  Salford Electrical Instruments; Easterbrook Allcard. It also covered the role of miners’ wives in the 1972 miners’ strike:

Students:  nursery campaigns; National Union of School Students; NUS Women’s Campaign;

Trade Unions: Fisher Bendix occupation; the failure of  the Women’s Industrial  Union in Burnley;  nurses’ campaign for better pay and conditions; the Working Women’s Charter; women  in the media conference;  women  in NALGO:

Women’s Liberation: the position in Sweden; Marxism and Women’s Liberation; domestic labour; socialist-feminism,  Women Against Racism and Fascism, United Black Women’s Action Group

Contributors included:  Carol Ackroyd,  Judith Arkwright,  Sue Aspinall, Hilary Brazen, Ann Chesterton,  Cath Cikit, Mary Crane, Penny Duggan,  Ingrid Falconer, Ann Foreman,   Linda Fryd, Jenny Frost,  Joanna Griffiths,  Sarah Hart, Barbara Holland,   Celia Holt,  Dorothy Jones, Val Jones,  Pat Kahn,  Leonora Lloyd, Karen Margolis, Rosa Ochti,  Angela Phillips,  Lesley Richardson, Carol Riddell,   Mary Roston, Sue Shapiro, Linda Smith, Sue Spilling,   Nina  Thomas, Linda Smith, Tessa Van Gelderen,  Yvonne Taylor,  Hilary Wainwright and Dodie Weppler.

IMG Conference 1978: discussion on women members

Feminism made women angry, including women in the IMG.  This finally erupted at  the 1978 national conference.

The report in Socialist Woman (October 1978)  noted that there had  been “months of often heated pre-conference discussion” and that the discussion:

raised some very basic questions about a revolutionary party; the relationship of activity in the women’s movement and a revolutionary organisation: how tensions between men and women express themselves in a mixed political party and the methods and limitations of combating sexism within its ranks. This discussion revolved around the role and functioning of women’s caucuses (that is meetings for all and only women members inside the IMG.

A very lengthy resolution was adopted at the conference which began with  some trenchant criticism of men in the organisation and  its culture :

Sexism in society finds its reflection inside the IMG. It finds its  expression in a number of ways;

  1. The lack of consciousness in the IMG as to how and why sexism operates in its own ranks.
  2. A concept of a cadre which can be interpreted as a steretoype of traditional male behaviour.
  3. Insufficient understanding of women’s educational needs.
  4. A tradition of political discussion which encourages  individual competitiveness and dismissiveness rather than collective dialogue.
  5. Lack of confidence of women comrades induced by conditions within and without the orgaisation.
  6. A division of labour which creates a distinction between (mostly male) prucers of theory, and the paractical activists.
  7. Insufficient action to deal with the problems of child-care.

Reading between the lines it seems clear that  the  model of organising within Women’s  Liberation (non-hierarchical,  valuing all contributions  and based on small group discussion) had clashed with the male culture within IMG in which it appears that  if you hadn’t read every word Marx, Lenin and Trotsky had ever written you were dismissed.

It was agreed that women caucuses  encouraged  the organisation “to come to grips with the problem  of sexism.” These should be timed  so as not to clash  with other branch activities and open to all women. It was suggested that discussion in the caucuses  should  include consciousness -raising;  problems of the role of women  comrades in the leadership; help in integrating new women comrades into the organisation and discussion of recuitment  and relationships to women contacts.

The resolution  concluded:

Women  comrades have an enormous potential  contribution to make to the life and politics of the organisation. This potential is still  far from being realised, despite certain advances in theory and practice made by the IMG over the past few years.  Only the establishment of women’s caucuses wll help to realise  this principle.  At least, we should free ourselves from all prejudice  about this issue, and try to investigate the various positions and options open to the IMG as frankly and as carefully as possible. The aim  is not to ghettoise women’s issues and problems but to make them the property of the IMG as a whole, and its concern. Women’s caucuses will help to stimulate  a more outgoing  approach  by women  comrades rather than concentration  among themselves on informal  discussion and unresolved conflicts.

Socialist  Woman pamphlets

1. Booklist for Women’s Liberation

2. The Nightcleaners’s Campaign.

3. The Lancaster Cleaners Campaign.

4. Women in Industry. No 1

5. Women workers in Britain: a handbook

6. International Women’s Day by Alexandra Kollontai

 

I have found some  biographical detail  on two women involved with Socialist Woman:

Margaret Coulson. She died in 2017 in Australia. This is an obituary written by her friend Margo Gorman.

Leonora Lloyd. She  died in 2002. This is her obituary in the Guardian.

 

Reading  Socialist Woman

The Working Class Movement Library in Salford  has some copies in its collection , but not the whole run. Missing copies would be welcomed

The Marxists website has the  complete run  scanned in (including the bulletin and pamphlets)  which  can be read here.

 

 

 

 

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One comment

  1. Geoff Brown

    Dear Michael,

    Thanks very much for this excellent material. As I may have mentioned, I’m particularly interested in the years 1968-69, the point at which the women’s liberation movement takes off. I think it is more-or-less impossible to find signs of the movement before 1968 so I’m very impressed that Socialist Woman starts that year.

    Cheers,

    Geoff

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